Amaranth (US red dye No. 2 E123)
Permitted in: jams; Jeli-O powder, Aylmer Fruit Cocktail; Ribena; ketchup; glacé cherries; cake decorations
Effects: tumour production; allergic and respiratory reactions; birth defects
Permitted in: as above
Effects: allergic and respiratory reactions; interference with iodine metabolism
Permitted in: as above
Effects: increased sensitivity to viral diseases
Sunset yellow FCF (ff110)
Permitted in: lemon curd; Sainsbury’s Fresh Cream Fruit Trifle
Effects: allergic reactions
Tartrazine (US yellow dye no.5, ff102)
Permitted in: Tango Orange Drinic, Kellogg’s Maple Flavour Syrup
Effects: allergic reactions; asthma
Brilliant blue FCF (US blue dye no. 1, n/l*)
Permitted in: blue food colouring
Effects: tumour production; allergic reactions
Fast green FCF (n/l*)
Permitted in: jellies; cake decorations
Effects: allergic reactions; tumour production
Citrus red no. 2 (n/l*)
Permitted in: used to colour orange skins
Effects: week cancer-causing agent
Ponceau SX (US red dye no. 4, E124)
Permitted in: fruit peel and maraschino cherries
Effects: damage to urinary system; banned in US
Carbon black (ff153)
Permitted in: jams and jellies; concentrated fruit juice; dried egg; ice cream; bread; buuer vegetable fats and oils; margarine; cheese; icing sugar; pickles; flavoured milk; processed meat and fish
Effects: tumour production; not permitted in US
Titanium dioxide (FY71)
Permitted in: as above
Effects: unclear, although this colour has been banned in the countries of the EEC
Permitted in: as above
Effects: birth defects
Permitted in: Coca Cola; brown bread; flavoured milK butter; concentrated fruit juice; ice cream; sherbet; jams and jellies; pickles and relishes; alcoholic beverages; Bovril
Effects: neurological disorders; effects on disease immunity systems
Brominated Vegetable Oil
Permitted in: citrus and spruce-flavoured drinks
Effects: accumulation in tissues; various anatomical abnormalities; banned in UK
Permitted in: Cola drinks
Effects: stimulation of nervous system; linked to birth defects in humans
Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)
Permitted in: Batcheloffs Cup-a-Soup; Planter’s Dry Roast Peanuts; Campbel's Soups and many other items
Effects: allergic reactions; brain damage; possible psychological effects like depression, possible birth defects
Permitted in: chewing gum
Effects: liver tumours and other damage
Disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate
Permitted in: some snack foods (no restrictions on their use) safe except for people suffering from gout-and other conditions requiring avoidance of purines.
Hydrolyzed vegetable protein
Permitted in: not used in baby roods; no other restrictions on use
Effects: comprised largely of monosodium glutamate; see above
Permitted in: no restrictions on use
Effects: effects on blood composition
Suiphites (ff223) (E224) (ff227)
Permitted in: cider; wine; beer; jams and jellies; molasses: marmalade; fruit juices; tomato paste; dried fruits and vegetables.
Effects: possible interference with metabolism of thiarnin and other B vitamins, vitamin A and calcium; toxic interaction of suiphites and unsaturated fats; intestinal changes
Nitrites (E249) (E250)
Permitted in: processed meat and preserved poultry bacon; ham
Effects: rnethaernoglobinernia (a blood disorder), especially in infants: tumour production in conversion of nitrates to cancer-causing nitrosarnines: chromosome changes; birth defects; allergic muons
Nitrates (ff257) (E252)
Permitted in: preserved meat; some ripened cheeses
Effects: conversion to nitrites (see above)
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (E321)
Permitted in: vegetable oils and shortenings; dry breakfast cereals; dry beverage mixes; chewing gum; snack foods; instant potatoes; margarine.
Effects: reproductive failures; behavioural effects; blood cell changes; lung, stomach and ovarian tumours, especially in conjunction with nitrosamines; possible toxic effects from long-term storage in fatty tissues; linked to decreased risk of stomach cancer; allergic reactions pOssible interference with activity of ingested steroid hormones and oral contraceptives.
Butylated hydrozyanisole (BHA) (F320)
Permitted in: see BHT; fewer effects reported and less used in food than BHT
Effects: as above
Propyl gallate (f321)
Permitted in: vegetable ails arid shortenings; dry breakfast cereals; margarine; instant potatoes; snack foods; chewing gum.
Effects: reproductive failures; liver damage
Benzoic acid (ff210) and Sodium Benezoate (ff211)
Permitted in: jams and jellies;mincemeat marmalade; ketchup; marinated meat and fish; fruit juices; margarine; Sainsbury’s Cola Drink.
Effects: neurological disorders; allergic reactions in humans, asthma; reacts with the preservative sodium bisulphite.
Sodium propionate (ff287)
Permitted in: bread; cheese
Effects: migraine headaches
Sulphur dioxide (n/l*)
Permitted in: dried fruits and vegetables; beverages; Sun Maid Raisins
Effects: aestruction of the B vitamin thiamin.
Carboxymethyl cellulose (E466) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
Permitted in: salad dressings; flavoured milk; processed cheese; ice cream; cream; cottage cheese Effects: may cause intestinal obstruction; suspected to cause cancer
Permitted in: salad dressings; prepareci meat and fish; flavoured milk; processed cheese: ice cream; evaporated milk; cream; cottage cheese; sour cream; infant formula; alcoholic beverages.
Effects: gastrointestinal ulcers (but also used to treat ulcers in humans); liver damage; effects on immunity system; suspected to cause cancer.
(containing one or more of the 23 permitted starch modifying agents; eg. epichloroh ydrin)
Permitted in: puddings and pie fillings; qravies; sauces; baby foods
Effects: kidney damage; chromosome changes; suspected to cause cancer.
Polyoxyethylene (8) stearate (ff481483)
Permitted in: bakery foods
Effects: effects on gastrointestinal and urinary tracts (eg. bladder stones; tumours)
Permitted in: beverage mixes; soft
Effects: weight loss; effects on length of pregnancy; blood disorders
Sodium alginate (n/l*)
Permitted in: salad dressings; ice cream; flavoured milk; processed cheese
Effects: inhibition of essential metal absorption; allergic reactions
Tragacanth gum (E4 13)
Permitted in: salad dressings; processed cheese; cream cheese; cottage cheese; ice cream; sherbet Effects: allergic reactions
Permitted in: flour; whole wheat flour
Effects: destruction of vitamin E; allergic reactons; weak cancer causing agent
Alum (potassium aluminium sulphate; also a firming agent end flour b/each carrier)
Permitted in: pickles; relish; flour; baking powder; beer; ale.
Effects: kidney damage; intestinal bleeding.
Sodium aluminium sulphate
Permitted in: baking powder; (used for other purposes in pickles. relishes and flour)
Effects: kidney damage.
Calcium disodium edta (n/l*)
Permitted in: salad dressings; alcoholic beverages; Kraft Thousand Island Dressing
Effects: possible interference with absorption of essential trace metals such as iron, zinc and copper
Permitted in: salt: garlic and onion salU dry mixes; icing sugar (as an anti-caking agent); sweets and candies (as a glazing/polishing and release agent); rice (as a coating); chewing gum (as a dusting agent)
Effects: talc (a form of magnesium silicate) may be contaminated with asDeStOS, whichis suspected of causing gastrointestinal cancer; some silicates may cause kidney damage; but most are considered biologically inactive.
Propylene glycol (an extraction solvent)
Permitted in: salt flavours; extracts; essences; colours.
Effects: anatomical deformities; reduced growth.
1, 3-Butylene glycol (an extraction solvent)
Permitted in: sweets and candies; bakery goods; fresh fruit and vegetables.
Effects: interference with the body's utilisation of the fat-soluble vitamins A,D,E and K.
Paraffin wax (a coating)
Permitted in: fresh fruits and vegetables; cheese; packaging .
Effects: gastrointestinal tract symptoms including links with stomach cancer.
Shellac (a glaze)
Permitted in: cake decorations; sweets and candies
Effects: gastrointestinal tract symptoms
Polyvinylpyrrolidone (a clarifying agent)
Permitted in: ale; beer cider wine.
Effects: tumour production; liver and kidney damage; spontaneous abortions.
Methylene choride (an extraction solvent)
Permitted in: coffee; spice extracts; hop extracts
Effects: chemically similar to known causes of cancer
Xylitol (a sweetener)
Permitted in: chewing gum.
Effects: suspected to cause cancer
*n/l = not fisted or regulated under EEC regulations