New Internationalist

The Facts

Issue 128

Click here to subscribe to the print edition. [image, unknown] new internationalist 128[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown] October 1983[image, unknown] Click here to search the mega index.

MINORITY RIGHTS [image, unknown] Small is... the FACTS

[image, unknown]


Small is...

Schumacher got it wrong. Small does not always mean beautiful. Quite the reverse for most minority groups. To compare facts internationally is difficult but the final answer seems globally the same...

[image, unknown]

always being at the
bottom of the heap.


[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown]
[image, unknown]
CANADA POPULATION
24.1 million

[image, unknown]

JOBS - Unemployment

[image, unknown] Indians are 4-5 times more likely to be unemployed than non-Indians. About 10-15% of the Indian working population is engaged in traditional pursuits (hunting, fishing etc).

INCOME
Indian households receive half to 2/3 of national average income.

EDUCATION
Most Indian children complete elementary (primary) school; but those completing secondary school are only 25% of the national rate.

HOUSING
Although most Indian houses have electricity, the proportion with water and sewage facilities is only just over half the national average. One in three Indian families lives in crowded conditions.

[image, unknown]

Serviced with sewage water and electricity.

INDIAN

50%

NATIONAL AVERAGE

96%

[image, unknown]

HEALTH
Indian children are 2 1/2 times more likely to die before the age of 12 months than the national average.

LIFE EXPECTANCY
Indians can expect to live on average 9 years less than the national average of 76.3(f) and 69.3(m).

LAW

[image, unknown]

Prison inmates per 100,000 population

INDIAN

280

NATIONAL
AVERAGE

40

[image, unknown]

Indians are 7 times more likely to be imprisoned than the general population. In Manitoba, Saskatchewan and the north, Indians and other natives represent 40% of the jail population.

SUICIDES
Indian suicides are 3-times the national average. In the 15-24 years age group they are 6-times the national average.

Source: Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs, Indian Conditions: a Survey Ottowa 1980

[image, unknown]
[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown]

[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown]
[image, unknown]
UNITED KINGDOM POPULATION
53.7 million

[image, unknown]

JOBS - Employment ladder
Blacks are almost twice as likely to be unemployed, and their job levels are substantially lower than those of whites.

[image, unknown]

*The term ‘black’ refers to people of both Asian and Afro-Caribbean origin.

INCOME
16% of blacks compared with 9% of whites, live ‘in poverty’ according to the Townsend Report (1979).

RACIAL DISCRIMINATION
According to the Commission for Racial Equality, 50% of British employers discriminate against black applicants.

VIOLENCE
A Home Office study Racia/Attacks (1981) found that black people were 50-60 times more likely than whites to be victims.

EARNINGS
Because their job levels are lower, black workers earn less than whites for the same working hours. A 1979 survey of unemployed men showed these patterns.

Weekly take-home pay

Level of last job
WHITES
BLACKS

[image, unknown]

Non-manual
£62.7
£48.2
Skilled manual
£69.0
£59.6
semi-skilled man
£57.3
£58.9
Unskilled manual
£50.8
£60.1
[image, unknown]

Black unskilled workers earned more than whites because they did more shift work.

EDUCATION
National statistics have not been collected since 1973. A survey of London primary schoolchildren in 1971 found that black children were performing at least one year behind theirwhite classmates. West Indian children lagged well behind Asians.

HEALTH
There are no detailed national statistics on the health of black people in Britain.

HOUSING
Two-thirds of Britain’s black population live in major urban areas like London, Manchester, Bradford, Leeds, Leicester or Birmingham. They tend to rent or buy old, sub-standard housing in run-down, inner city areas.

Household amenities:

HOUSEHOLDS LACKING THEIR OWN BATH, HOT WATER AND INSIDE WC.

West Indian / Pakistani
33%
Bangladeshi
57%
Indian
35%
African/Asian
31%
Gen. Population
17.9%

LAW
No figures yet available for proportion of black population in prison.

Sources: Unemployment and Racial Minorities, by David Smith, 1981
Poverty in the United Kingdom by Peter Townsend, 1979
Racial Disadvantage in Britain by David Smith, 1977
Labour Force Survey Office of Population, Censuses and Surveys
Annual Report 198Z Commission of Racial Equality.

[image, unknown]
[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown]

[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown]
[image, unknown]
UNITED STATES POPULATION
232 million

[image, unknown]

JOBS - Employment ladder
American blacks are twice as likely to be unemployed as whites. They are 30% less likely to have white collar jobs and almost 40% more likely to work in the low-paid service sector.

[image, unknown]

INCOME
American blacks are more than twice as likely to have incomes below the poverty line than whites.

HEALTH
Children born into black families are almost twice as likely to die before the age of 12 months as children born into white families.

Infant mortality rate:

WHITES
BLACKS

[image, unknown]

Deaths per 1000
live births
11.4
21.8
[image, unknown]

LIFE EXPECTANCY
White Americans can expect to live 4.6 years longer than blacks and members of other ethnic minorities.

EDUCATION
Black Americans are 3 times more likely than whites to have completed less than 5 years of schooling, and only half as likely to have completed 4 or more years of college.

Sources: US Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1981. ‘Unemployment & underemployment among Blacks, Hispanics & Women US Commission on Civil Rights, Clearinghouse Publication 74, Nov. 1982. US National Centre for Health Statistics, 1979. Population Bulletin, Vol. 37, No. 2 June 1982.

[image, unknown]
[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown]

[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown]
[image, unknown]
NEW ZEALAND POPULATION
3.2 million

[image, unknown]

JOBS · Employment ladder
Maoris are four times as likely to be unemployed as non-Maoris. They are under-represented in professional and managerial jobs, and over-represented in the unskilled sector.

[image, unknown]

EDUCATION
New Zealanders of non-Maori descent are twice as likely as Maoris to complete secondary school and six times as likely to enter University.

HOUSING
Maoris are twice as likely as non-Maoris to ive in rented accommodation and much ess likely to own their own homes.

HEALTH
Maori children are almost twice as likely to die before the age of 12 months as non-Maori children.

Infant mortality rate:

TOTAL POPULATION
MAORIS

[image, unknown]

Deaths per 1000
live births
11.7
18.2
[image, unknown]

LIFE EXPECTANCY

Total population 73.5 yrs
Maoris 67.9 yrs.

LAW
Proportion of population in prison

Non-Maori 120 per 100,000
Maori 1,530 per 100,000

Maoris are more than 12 times as likely as non-Maoris to be imprisoned.

Sources: 1981 Census

[image, unknown]
[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown]

[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown]
[image, unknown]
AUSTRALIA POPULATION
15 million

[image, unknown]

Jobs - Unemployment
Aboriginals are 4 times more likely to be unemployed than other Australians.

INCOME
Aboriginal households receive 60% of the income of white households.

EDUCATION
80% of adult Aboriginals have no educational qualifications.

HOUSING
National figures are not available but a survey of Aboriginal housing in Queensland in 1979 found that:

63% was totally unacceptable
34% was acceptable but needed repair
3% was on par with normal white Australia standards.

HEALTH
National figures unavailable but survey in New South Wales in 1980 found that infant mortality among Aboriginals was 52 per 1000—four times the national average.

LIFE EXPECTANCY
Aboriginal life expectancy is 52 years, 20 years less than the national average.

LAW
Aboriginals are more likely than whites to have tl’teir houses searched without a warrant; to be charged with a minor offence; to be refused bail, to receive a jail sentence rather than a fine, and a longer sentence if jailed.

In West Australia, Aboriginals are only 4% of the total population, but 33% of the prison population. In Victoria an Aboriginal has 45% more chance of going to jail than a white.

Sources: 1981 Census Minority Rights Group Report No. 35 Aboriginal Australians
World Council of Churches Report Justice for Aboriginal Australians.

[image, unknown]
[image, unknown] [image, unknown] [image, unknown]

Previous page.
Choose another issue of NI.
Go to the contents page.
Go to the NI home page.
Next page.


This first appeared in our award-winning magazine - to read more, subscribe from just £7

Comments on The Facts

Leave your comment