New Internationalist

The Facts

Issue 116

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INDONESIA [image, unknown] The Facts

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The FACTS

Indonesia
. Indonesia's ocean boundaries embrace an area almost as large as Europe west of the Soviet Union (9.5 million square kilometres, of which almost 80 per cent is ocean). Its land area is 1.9 million square kilometres.

. The archipelago, with about 13,000 islands (300 or so inhabited), is the largest in the world and is home to many peoples and cultures. Eighty-five per cent of all Indonesians are Moslem, making their country the most populous Islamic state in the world. Ten per cent of Indonesians are Christian, two per cent Hindu and three per cent of animist and other beliefs. Though eclipsed as major religions, the influence of Hinduism and Buddhism is still clearly manifested in the Ramayana and Mahabarata dramas, particularly on Java.

. Malays predominate in the Indonesian racial mix which also includes negrito, melanesian, australoid, papuan and mongoloid types.

. Indonesians speak well over 100 distinct languages, which, in turn break down into many different dialects. The national language Bahasa (meaning language) Indonesia is closely related to Melay.

. In more than 400 years of European domination, ethnic groups throughout the archipelago waged sporadic wars of liberation. Dissent did not end with independence in 1949. Secessionist movements continue, particularly in northern Sumatra, West Irian and East Timor.


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POPULATION
* Indonesia, with nearly 1 50 million people counted in the 1 981 census, is the fifth most heavily-populated nation.

* The combined mid-1980 population of its five neighbours — Australia (14.5 million), Malaysia (13.9 million), Papua New Guinea (3 million), Philippines (49 million) and Singapore (2.4 million) — was 82.8 million.

* 1981 census projections indicate an Indonesian population of 212 million by the year 2000 and 300 million by 2015.

* In 1981, 64 per cent of the population (95 million) lived on Java and Bali which comprise only seven per cent of Indonesia’s total land area.

* Population density on Java was 1756 per square mile; on Kalimantan, 31; on West Irian.


INCOME DISTRIBUTION

  Year
Poorest 40%
Richest 40%
INDONESIA 1976
14.4
73.0
Australia 1966-67
20.1
62.2
Malaysia 1973
11.2
76.4
Philippines 1970-71
14.2
73.0

EDUCATION
* Indonesia’s adult literacy rate increased from 39 per cent in 1960 to 62 per cent in 1977.

* The percentage of children enrolled in primary school rose from71 in 1960 to 94 in 1979.

* In 1960 one per cent of 20-24 year olds were enrolled in higher education; in 1978 this figure was three per cent.


HEALTH
* In Indonesia life expectancy, at 53 years, is among the lowest in Asia. The incidence of infectious diseases remains high and nutritional levels low. Of all deaths, more than 50 per cent occur in the under-5 age group which makes up 15 per cent of the 150 million population.

 
Life expectancy
if born in 1979
Infant mortality 1980
Doctor / patient
ratio 1979
INDONESIA
53
9.3%
1:13,670
Malaysia
64
3.1%
1:7,640
Singapore
72
1.2%
1:1,250
Philippines
64
5.5%
1:2,810
Papua New Guinea
51
10.5%
1:14,040
Australia
74
1.1%
1:650

Source: World Development Report 1982 unless indicated.


NATIONAL RICHES
* Indonesia has the greatest mineral potential in southeast Asia. It is rich in oil, coal, silver, gold, bauxite, nickel and tin.

* Its principal crops are rice, maize, sweet potatoes, cassava, soyabeans, groundnuts, tea, rubber, coffee, copra, tobacco, palm oil and pepper.


THE NATIONAL DEBT
* The Indonesian foreign debt in 1965, the last year of President Sukarno’s rule was $2.358 billion.

* In 1970, the external public debt was $2.443 billion (27.1 per cent of GNP).

* In 1980 the external public debt was $14.94 billion (22.5 per cent of GNP). Indonesia’s gross internal reserves in 1970 were $160 million; in 1 980 they were $6800 million.


LABOUR
* In 1980, 57 per cent of the Indonesian population was of working age (1 5-64). The labour force was estimated at about 56 million.

* In the same year, 58 per cent of the labour force was in agriculture against 75 per cent in 1960; 1 2 per cent was in industry against eight per cent in 1960; and 30 per cent was in services against 17 per cent in 1960.


Sample wage
In 1980, the basic daily wage paid to Triumph workers was:

INDONESIA Rupiahs 800 — $1.28
Hongkong $HK 37 — $7.40
Philippines Pesos 14 — $1.87
Thailand Baht 60 — $3.00
W. Germany DM 68 — $32.50

Source: CCA-URM, Hongkong


THE ECONOMY
* Indonesia in 1980, according to the World Bank’s World Development Report 1982, became a middle income economy’ by improving its GNP (gross national product) per capita from $370 in 1979 to $430.

* At the turn of the eighties. Indonesia’s GDP (gross domestic product) was approaching $70 billion, to which industry was contributing about 40 per cent agriculture 30 per cent and manufacturing 10 per cent


TRADE

* Indonesia’s main markets are Holland, West Germany, the United States, Japan and Australia.

1981 Exports — $22,410,000
Minerals as % of exports 1981 — 76.2
Manufactures as % of exports 1981 — 1.3
Agric products as % of exports 1981 — 12.2

1981 Imports — $18,544,000
Plant and capital equipment as of imports — 27.7
consumer manufactures — 15.4
Raw materials and food — 18.8
Petroleum — 32.8

* Trade increased by 58% in value on 1975 performance by 1981.

* Balance of payments 1981: + $ US2,336,000. (Source — FEER Yearbook 7982)


FOREIGN INVESTMENT
* Foreign investment in Indonesia between 1 967 and 1974 was estimated at $3.859 billion with Japan ($1.06 billion) and the United States ($974 million) leading the rush. Hongkong money came third with $444 million. The investment in that period involved 778 projects. (Source: Irtdortesian Irtvestment Co-ordinating Board)


DEFENCE

 
Armed Forces
(personnel)
Expenditure
(US $)
INDONESIA
273,000
$2.39 bill (1981)
Australia
72,600
$3.9 bill (1980-81)
Malaysia
102,000
$2.25 bill (1981)
Papua New Guinea
3,500
$36.2 mill (1981)
Philippines
113,000
$863 mill (1981)
Singapore
42,000
$574 mill (1980)

Source: International Institute of Strategic Srudies, London.


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