New Internationalist

Bahamas

Issue 355

Just a few hundred metres offshore from Nassau, capital of the Bahamas, stands one of the world’s busiest tourist resorts. Hotels, a golf course, casinos and even a reconstructed medieval French cloister are incongruously scattered on its 277 hectares. It used to be called Hog Island, a scrubby wasteland named after the semi-wild pigs that foraged around its interior. Its makeover came in 1962 when the US entrepreneur Huntingdon Hartford II persuaded the Government to change its name to Paradise Island and built a bridge, unleashing a torrent of tourism-related investment. More recently, South African billionaire Sol Kerzner has invested in the strikingly pink Atlantis Resort and Casino; reclusive residents have included Howard Hughes and the Shah of Iran.

The Bahamas’ transformation from subsistence farming to mass tourism took place over the 20th century but really accelerated from the 1960s onwards. Today the islands welcome over three million tourists annually, with the industry accounting for more than 60 per cent of GDP and over half of employment. Growth in the 1990s was largely fuelled by hotel construction, but the trade gap widened steadily, as food, fuel and machinery were imported.

Veronica Garbutt / Panos
Veronica Garbutt / Panos

The glittering attractions of Paradise Island are mirrored in other resorts, especially on the larger islands of New Providence and Grand Bahama, which cater primarily to US tourists. Cruise ships are also big business, with the Bahamas featuring on most itineraries out of Miami. But many of the 700 islands and 2,000 cays that make up the archipelago are either uninhabited or have much smaller-scale tourism.

The proximity of these small islands to the United States (Bimini is only 50 miles from Florida) has shaped their history. Loyalists founded settlements after the American War of Independence, bringing their slaves with them, while from the 16th century pirates used the isolated cays as bases. The British imposed colonial rule in 1717, but it was American trade, legal and illegal, that underpinned the economy. Arms and supplies were smuggled to Confederate forces during the American Civil War, making the fortunes of the ‘Bay Street Boys’, the white merchant élite operating out of Bay Street, Nassau.

But it was booze that really lined the merchants’ pockets when the Bahamas became the favoured departure point for Prohibition busters such as Bill McCoy (‘the real McCoy’) who smuggled rum and whisky to thirsty 1920s America. Economically dominant, the white traders stalled the advent of democracy, preventing adult suffrage until 1961. Soon afterwards the firebrand black politician, Lynden Pindling, shot to power, promising a fairer deal for the majority.

Pindling, who died in 2000, became synonymous with corruption (he engagingly described himself as ‘less than perfect’), even though allegations against him were never proven. Yet during his period in office, the Bahamas became notorious for another illicit trade - the smuggling of cocaine into the US. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s sleek and speedy ‘cigar boats’ plied the waters between the islands and Florida, with US coastguards overwhelmed.

The CIA continues to describe the Bahamas as ‘a major trans-shipment point for illegal drugs’ and is also concerned that undocumented refugees from Haiti and Cuba use the islands as stepping stones towards the US. A large Haitian community, meanwhile, does the dirty jobs that Bahamians prefer to avoid.

Few of the visitors to Paradise Island see these murkier sides to the Caribbean dream, though residents in more isolated islands such as Abaco have complained of growing drug smuggling. In this sense, the Bahamas is merely doing what it has done for most of its history: supplying American demand.

James Ferguson

Bahamas Fact File
Leader Prime Minister Perry Christie.
Economy Gross national income (GNI) per capita $14,960 (Haiti $480, United States $34,870).
Monetary unit Bahamian dollar.
Main exports fish and lobsters, rum, salt, chemicals. Main sources of income are tourism, financial services and ship registration.
People 308,000. People per square kilometre 30 (Dominican Republic 177). Many islands and cays are uninhabited, with two-thirds of the population in New Providence.
Health Infant mortality 13 per 1,000 births (Cuba 7, Haiti 79). Water and electricity supplies are good. Health problems are related to over-consumption rather than poverty, while hiv/aids is prevalent.
Environment Tourism has destroyed some mangroves and wetlands, but the Government has taken steps to restrict development in ecologically sensitive areas.
Culture British colonialism competed for two and a half centuries with North American influences. A majority black population, descended from slaves, was marginalized for centuries, but the political, if not economic, power of the white minority was broken from the 1960s.
Religion Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%. Many North American religious groups are active, and every village boasts several churches.
Language English (Haitian Creole spoken by migrant population of around 50,000).
Sources State of the World’s Children 2003; World Bank; IMF; Caribbean Development Bank 2002; Minority Rights Group; Caribbean Tourism Organization.
Bahamas ratings in detail
Income distribution
The days of the ‘Bay Street Boys’ are over, and there is a significant middle class. Poverty is largely confined to the Haitian community, which occupies shanty towns.
Self Reliance
Projects to develop agriculture and industry have done little to reduce dependence on tourism. The Bahamas is highly vulnerable to downturns in the US economy.
Position of women
Women are increasingly prominent in the professions and top jobs, although politics is still male-dominated. Domestic violence is a problem, according to women’s groups.
Literacy
At 96%, the official literacy rate reveals sustained Government spending on primary education. Problems exist with Creole-speaking Haitian children.
Freedom
There is no censorship or political violence, although undocumented migrants complain of heavy-handed raids by immigration officials.
Life expectancy
69 years (Cuba 76, Haiti 53).
NI Assessment (Politics)
The excesses of the Pindling years are a thing of the past and the current Government is attempting to regulate state finances and proceed with a limited privatization programme. Prime Minister Christie was elected on a promise to crack down on crime and drugs but has come under fire from critics for failing to achieve results. While by no means radical, the Government has to balance the competing demands of the tourist industry and ordinary Bahamians, and in doing so enjoys majority popular support.

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