A Matsigenka hunter returns with wild pig. Image by G Shepard courtesy of Survival.
Call it cinema vérité, fly-on-the-wall documentary, or just plain old reality TV: programmes such as Big Brother, Survivor, The Apprentice and Tribe have been big business for television production companies for more than a decade.
And so the news that a series about an Amazonian tribe has been slammed as ‘staged, false, fabricated and distorted’ by experts on the tribe again raises serious concerns about the ethics of reality TV. Mark & Olly: Living with the Machigenga was broadcast on the Travel Show in the US and on BBC last year. In the show, Mark Anstice and Olly Steeds lived in a Matsigenka Indian village for several months to show the ‘reality’ of life amongst the tribe.
Two experts on the tribe have now gone public with a string of highly damaging accusations, saying that many events presented as ‘real’ in the series must have been staged. They argue the programmes present a 'false and insulting’ portrayal of the tribe as sex-obsessed, mean and savage, and that many of the Indian translations are fabricated.
That the series may be a travesty of the Matsigenka’s way of life is cheap and bad enough. Sadly this is all too common. Today’s TV just doesn’t seem interested in any attempt to portray tribal peoples’ lives as they really are. It is a very different matter for a tribe in the Amazon to experience wholesale misrepresentation, as it is for a would-be 'apprentice' looking for a job, or a soap actress on skates. Fabrication is inherently unethical, but for tribal peoples the consequences can be insidiously far-reaching. The reason is simple: the murders, dispossessions and long-term abuses of tribal peoples from the Amazon to the Arctic have always been - and still are - underpinned by racist thinking.
‘All the years of calling the Indian a “savage” has never made him one’, said Luther Standing Bear, an Oglala Sioux. But as long as those who have a public voice promote such ideas, they will be believed. Irresponsible programmes such as Mark and Olly... serve only to perpetuate stereotypical views. The distorted view of the Matsigenka’s way of life is not just humiliating for the tribe, it's not just an unethical piece of journalism, it's dangerous. If tribal peoples are portrayed as ‘savage’ or ‘Stone Age,’ the public will believe this to be true. This can lead to the theft of tribal lands and resources by governments and corporations. Negative portrayals feed negative stereotypes which can underpin systematic and gross violations of human rights.